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Ratio decidend

Ratio decidendi, often shortened to ratio, is Latin for the “the reason for deciding”. In current Legal English usage it means the principle, ground or reason for the decision in…

Foreign words in Legal English (1)

Lawyers use foreign words, especially Latin words, when writing legal texts of every kind, from statutes to emails. Legal English also contains some French words, especially in the area of EU law. While Latin words are more common than French words in Legal English, this was not always the case. In fact, French was the language of the English courts for three hundred years following the Norman invasion in 1066, and did not lose its official status until 1731. This quiz tests your knowledge of the use of foreign words in Legal English.


There are generally two types of authority that will be considered by a judge when reaching a judgment in a case. The first type is binding authority, and the other is persuasive authority.
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